Content Category: Chemistry

<h3><strong>NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards)</strong></h3> <em><span style="font-weight: 400">The </span><a href="https://www.nextgenscience.org/"><span style="font-weight: 400">Next Generation Science Standards</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> (NGSS) are K–12 science content standards.</span></em> <h3><span style="font-weight: 400">Structure and Properties of Matter</span></h3> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Grades K-2</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400">2-PS1-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.</li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">2-PS1-2. Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">2-PS1-3. Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">2-PS1-4. Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.</span></li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Grades 3-5</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">5-PS1-1. Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">5-PS1-2. Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">5-PS1-3. Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">5-PS1-4. Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.</span></li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Middle School</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-3. Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.</span></li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>High School</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3><span style="font-weight: 400">Chemical Reactions</span></h3> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Middle School</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-5.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">MS-PS1-6.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.</span></li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><strong>High School</strong> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400"><span style="font-weight: 400">HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul>
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